Thursday, 10 July 2014

NTSE stage 2 to be conducted  after 24.08.2014 as per decision of the High court of the Punjab and Haryana at Chandigarh
For detail judgement go through the link
http://phhc.gov.in:8080/pdf/fo/CWP_4594_2014_09_07_2014_FINAL_ORDER.pdf 

Monday, 16 June 2014

Print culture

Print Revolution
In this chapter we will look at the development of print from east Asia to Europe and in    India.
How social lives and cultures changed with the coming of print.
The First Printed Books
The earliest kind of print technology was developed in China, Japan and Korea. System of hand printing by wood block ( 594 A.D)
As both sides of the thin, porous sheet could not be printed, the traditional Chinese ‘accordion book’ was folded and stitched at the side.
The imperial state in China was, for a very long time, the major producer of printed          material.
Reason
China possessed a huge bureaucratic system which recruited its personnel through civil service examinations.
Print in Japan
Buddhist missionaries from China introduced hand-printing technology into Japan around AD 768-770.
The oldest Japanese book, printed in AD 868, is the Buddhist Diamond Sutra.
Kitagawa Utamaro, born in Edo (Tokyo) in 1753, was widely known for his contributions to an art form called ukiyo
A skilled woodblock carver pasted the  drawing  on  a  woodblock  and  carved  a  printing  block  to reproduce the painter’s lines. In the process, the original drawing would be destroyed and only prints would survive.
Print Comes to Europe
In the eleventh century, Chinese paper reached Europe via the Silk route. Paper invented in China by Cai Lun in 105 A.D
In1295, Marco Polo, returned to Italy after many years of exploration in China.
Marco Polo brought Wood Book printing knowledge back with him. He remained in the court of Kublai Khan for a long time.
Now Italians began producing books with woodblocks, and soon the technology spread to other parts of Europe.
Luxury editions were still hand written on very expensive vellum, (A sheet made from the skin of animal )
But the production of handwritten manuscripts could not satisfy the ever-increasing demand for books.
Reasons
Copying was an expensive, laborious and time-consuming business.
Manuscripts were fragile, awkward to handle, and could not be carried around or read      easily.
Their circulation therefore remained limited.
With the growing demand for books, woodblock printing gradually became more and      more popular.

Gutenberg and printing Press
At Strasbourg, Germany,Johann Gutenberg developed the first-known printing press in the1430s.
By1448,Gutenberg perfected the system.
The first book he printed was the Bible.
About 180 copies were printed and it took three years to produce them. By the standards of the time this was fast,of which no more than 50 have survived.
In the hundred years between 1450 and1550,printing presses were setup in most countries of Europe by Germans
The second half of the fifteenth century saw 20 million copies of printed books flooding the markets in Europe.
The number went up in the sixteenth century to about 200 million copies.
This shift from hand printing to mechanical printing led to the print revolution.


The Print Revolution and Its Impact
            New Reading Public
Printing reduced the cost of books.
Less time and labour required to produce each book.
Multiple copies could be produced with greater ease
Earlier, reading was restricted to the elites. Common people lived in a world of oral         culture.
Printers began publishing popular ballads, folk tales, and such books would be profusely illustrated with pictures
These were then sung and recited at gatherings in villages and in taverns in towns.
Religious Debates and the Fear of Print
Not everyone welcomed the printed book, According to Catholic church if there was no   control over what was printed and read then rebellious and irreligious thoughts might    spread.
If that happened the authority of ‘valuable’ literature would be destroyed.
Example
In 1517,the religious reformer Martin Luther wrote Ninety Five Theses criticizing many of the practices and rituals of the Roman Catholic Church.
A printed copy of this was posted on a church door in Wittenberg. It challenged the Church to debate his ideas.
Luther’s writings were immediately reproduced in vast numbers and read widely.
This lead to a division within the Church and to the beginning of the Protestant    Reformation.(A sixteenth-century movement to reform the Catholic Church dominated by   Rome. Martin Luther was one of the main Protestant reformers)
Deeply grateful to print, Luther said, ‘Printing is the ultimate gift of God and the greatest             one.’

Print and Dissent (Difference in ideas)
In the sixteenth century, Manocchio, a miller in Italy, began to read books that were available in his locality.
He reinterpreted the message of the Bible and formulated a view of God and Creation that enraged the Church
When the Roman Church began its inquisition (A former Roman Catholic court for identifying and punishing heretics) to repress heretical (Beliefs which do not follow the accepted teachings of the Church) ideas,
Manocchio was hauled up twice and ultimately executed.
The Roman Church, imposed severe controls over publishers and booksellers and began to maintain an Index of Prohibited Books from 1558.
Fear of the book
Erasmus, a Latin scholar and a Catholic reformer, who criticised the excesses of Catholicism but kept his distance from Luther, expressed a deep anxiety about printing.
The Reading Mania
As literacy and schools spread in European countries, there was a virtual reading mania.
New forms of popular literature appeared in print, targeting new audiences.
Booksellers employed pedlars who roamed around villages, carrying little books for sale.
There were almanacs or ritual calendars, along with ballads and folktales.
In England, penny chapbooks were carried by petty pedlars known as chapmen, and sold for a penny
In France, were the ‘Biliotheque Bleue’, which were low-priced small books printed on poor quality paper,
Similarly, the ideas of scientists and philosophers now became more accessible to the common people
Isaac Newton began to publish their discoveries.
Writings of thinkers such as Thomas Paine, Voltaire and Jean Jacques Rousseau were also widely printed and read.

‘Tremble, therefore, tyrants of the world!’
Louise-Sebastien Mercier, a novelist in eighteenth - century France, declared: ‘The printing press is the most powerful engine of progress and public opinion is the force that will sweep despotism away.’
Convinced of the power of print in bringing enlightenment and destroying the basis of despotism, Mercier proclaimed: ‘Tremble, therefore, tyrants of the world! Tremble before the virtual writer!’

Print Culture and the French Revolution (1789)
Many historians have argued that print culture created the conditions within which French Revolution occurred.

First: print popularised the ideas of the Enlightenment thinkers.
The writings of Voltaire and Rousseau were read widely; and those who read these books saw the world through new eyes, eyes that were questioning, critical and rational.

Second: print created a new culture of dialogue and debate. All values, norms and institutions were re-evaluated and discussed by a public that had become aware of the power of reason, and recognised the need to question existing ideas and beliefs. Within this public culture, new ideas of social revolution came into being.

Third: by the1780s there was an outpouring of literature that mocked the royalty and criticised their morality. In the process, it raised

Children, Women and Workers
As primary education became compulsory from the late nineteenth century, children became an important category of readers. Production of school textbooks became critical for the publishing industry. A children’s press, devoted to literature for children alone, was set up in France in 1857. This press published new works as well as old fairy tales and folktales.The Grimm Brothers in Germany spent years
Women became important as readers as well as writers. Penny magazines were especially meant for women, as were manuals teaching proper behavior and house keeping. When novels began to be written in the nineteenth century,
known novelists were women: Jane Austen, the Bronte sisters, George Eliot.
Lending libraries had been in existence from the seventeenth century onwards. In the nineteenth century, lending libraries in England became instruments for educating white-collar workers, artisans and lower-middle-class people. Sometimes, self-educated working class people wrote for themselves. After the working day was gradually shortened from the mid-nineteenth century, workers had some time for self-improvement and self-expression.

Further Innovations

By the late eighteenth century, the press came to be made out of metal. Through the nineteenth century, there were a series of further innovations in printing technology.
 By the mid-nineteenth century, Richard M. Hoe of New York had perfected the power-driven cylindrical press. This was capable of printing 8,000 sheets per hour. This press was particularly useful for printing newspapers.
 In the late nineteenth century, the off set press was developed which could print up to six colours at a time.
From the turn of the twentieth century, electrically operated presses accelerated printing operations.
 A series of other developments followed. Methods of feeding paper improved, the quality of plates became better, automatic paper reels and photoelectric controls of the colour register were introduced. The accumulation of several individual mechanical improvements transformed the appearance of printed texts.
Printers and publishers continuously developed new strategies to sell their product. Nineteenth-century periodicals serialised important novels, which gave birth to a particular way of writing novels.  In the 1920s in England, popular works were sold in cheap series, called the Shilling Series.
 With the onset of the Great Depression in the 1930s, publishers feared a decline in book purchases. To sustain buying, they brought out cheap paperbook edition.


Wednesday, 11 December 2013

NTSE stage 1 paper 2013 Rajasthan

Social science

56.        The club which was most successful, constituted by  the men and women of France, after the Constitution of  1791 was:
            (1) Liberty club                                                        (2) Zollverein
            (3) Jacobin club                                                      (4) Equality club
Ans.     (3)
Sol.      After the Constitution of 1791; the most successful club was Jacobin, which got its name from the former convent of St. Jacob in Paris.

57.        The great Indians who were influenced by the thoughts of French Revolution were:
            (1) Haider Ali & Tipu Sultan                                      (2) Tipu  Sultan and Raja Rammohan Roy
            (3) Lala Laspat Rai & Tilak (4) Bahadur Shah Jafar & Laxmibai
Ans.     (2)
Sol.      In India, Raja Rammohan Roy and Tipu Sultan talked of the significance of the French Revolution.

58.        The use of wood was much needed in 1850s to spread the Indian Railway tracks. It was used:
            (1) In Buildings                                                        (2) In Railway wagons
            (3) In Furniture                                                         (4) In Sleepers
Ans.     (4)
Sol.      The spread of railways from the 1850s created a new demand. Railways were essential from colonial trade and for the movement of imperial troops.

59.        The shepherds of Himachal Pradesh are called:
            (1) Gujjar                          (2) Gaddi                         (3) Bakarwal                      (4)  Bhotia
Ans.     (2)
Sol.      The shepherds of Himachal Pradesh are called Gaddi.

60.        The first Indian community to start playing the game of Cricket was:
            (1) Parsis                         (2) Christian                      (3) Marathi                        (4) Bengalee
Ans.     (1)
Sol.      The first Indian community to start playing the game was the small community of Zoroastrians, the Parsis.

61.        The institution like Indian Parliament that was established after the French Revolution in France was:
            (1) Duma                                                                (2) Zollverein                    
            (3) House of Lords                                                  (4) National Assembly
Ans.     (4)
Sol.     The institution like Indian Parliament that was established after the French Revolution in France was National Assembly.

62.        The founder of ‘Hoa-Hao’ Movement in Vietnam was:
            (1) Confucius                   (2) Laotse                        (3) Huynh Phu So              (4) Liang Qichao
Ans.     (3)
Sol.      The founder of Hoa Hao movement in Vietnam was Huynh Phu so.

63.        In which conference were International Monetary Fund and World Bank  established?
            (1) Brussels                      (2) Bretton Woods            (3) Vienna                         (4) Washington
Ans.     (2)
Sol.      The Bretton woods conference established the International Monetary Fund and World Bank.

64.        Bombay was a group of how many islands in 17th Century?
            (1) Seven                         (2) Nine                            (3) Eleven                         (4) Five
Ans.     (1)
Sol.      In the seventeenth century, Bombay was a group of seven islands under Portuguese control.

65.        In which text did Jyotiba Phule write about the injustices of Caste system?
            (1) Amar Jivan                  (2) Gulamgiri                    (3) Indirabai                      (4) Indralekha
Ans.     (2)
Sol.      Jyotiba Phule, the Maratha Pioneer of low caste protest movements, wrote about the injustices of the caste system in his ‘Gulamgiri’ (1871).

66.        Hill station located in Palani Hills is:
            (1) Panchmarhi                                                        (2) Kodaikanal
            (3) Udagamandalam                                                (4) Panchgani
Ans.     (2)
Sol.      Kodaikanal hill station is located in Palani Hills.

67.        The correct pair amongst the following is:
            (1) Chamba-River Chenab                                        (2) Kanchipuram-River Parvati
            (3) Nanded – River Godavari                                    (4) Ujjain – River Son
Ans.     (3)
Sol.      Chamba is in Himachal Pradesh and located on bank of river Ravi. Ujjain is at the bank of Shipra river. Nanded is at the bank of river Godavari.

68.        Match the following columns
            Column-I                         Column-II
            (A) Uttarakhand               (i) Sariska Wildlife Sanctuary
            (B) Assam                        (ii) Periyar Tiger Reserve
            (C) Rajasthan                   (iii) Manas Tiger Reserve
            (D) Kerala                        (iv) Corbett National Park
           
                        A                B             C             D                                                      
            (1)        (i)               (iii)           (ii)            (i)
            (2)        (iv)              (ii)            (i)            (iii)
            (3)        (iii)              (i)            (iv)           (ii)
            (4)        (iv)              (iii)           (i)            (ii)
Ans.     (4)
Sol.      Sariska wildlife sanctuary is in Rajasthan, Periyar Tiger Reserve is in Kerala, Manas is in Assam and Corbett National Park is in Uttarakhand.
             
69.        By using code, arrange the following cities of India from south to north:
            (A) Amritsar                                                             (B) Anantapur
            (C) Alwar                                                                 (D) Amaravati
            (1) B, C, D, A                                                          (2) B, D, C, A
            (3) D, C, B, A                                                          (4) D, B, A, C
Ans.     (2)
Sol.      Amritsar is in Punjab, Anantapur is in Andhra Pradesh, Alwar is in Rajasthan and Amaravati is in Maharashtra.

70.        Mango showers are :
            (1) Western disturbances in Punjab and Himachal Pradesh
            (2) Rainfall by north-east trade winds in coastal Tamil Nadu
            (3) Pre-monsoon rains in Kerala and Karnataka
            (4) Cloud burst in Khasi hills
Ans.     (3)
Sol.      Towards the close of the Summer Season, Pre Monsoon showers are common especially in Kerala and Karnataka. They help in the early ripening of mangoes, called mango showers.

71.        Consider the following statements:
            Assertion (A) : Manganese is used in the manufacturing of steel
            Reason (R) : Nearly 10 kilogram of manganese in needed to make one tonne of steel
            Select the correct option from the given alternatives:
            (1) (A) is true, but (R) is false
            (2) Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is explanation of A
            (3) Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not explanation of A
            (4) Both (A) and (R) are false
Ans.     (2)
Sol.      Manganese is mainly used in the manufacturing of steel and ferro-manganese alloy. Nearly 10 kg of manganese is required to manufacture one tonne of steel.

72.        Where is the national headquarters of Software Technology Park of India?
            (1) Bengaluru                    (2) Chennai                       (3) New Delhi                    (4) Pune
Ans.     (1)
Sol.      Bangalore has emerged as the electronic capital of India.

73.        National Highway-7 passes through how many states of India?
            (1) 6                                 (2) 5                                 (3) 8                                 (4) 7
Ans.     (1)
Sol.      National Highway 7 passes through 6 states of India. These are : - U.P., M.P., Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka & Tamil Nadu.

74.        Consider the following statements and choose the correct option :
            Statement I : Humus content is less in Laterite soils.
            Statement II : Red laterite soils are suitable for crops of cashewnut.
            Statement III : Laterite soils are found in Kerala and Tamil Nadu
            (1) Statement I and Statement II are true, but Statement III is false
            (2) Statement II and Statement III are true, but Statement I is false
            (3) Statement I and Statement III are true, but Statement II is false
            (4) All the three Statements are true.
Ans.     (4)
Sol.      Humus content of the laterite soil is low because most of the micro organisms, particularly the decomposers, like bacteria, get destroyed due to high temperature. Found in Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Madhya Pradesh, Odisha and Assam. Red laterite soils are suitable for crops of cashewnut .

75.        According to Census 2011, the state having highest density of population is
            (1) Kerala                         (2) West Bengal                (3) Uttar Pradesh               (4) Bihar
Ans.     (4)
Sol.      The population density of Indian in the year 2011 was 382 persons per square km. Densities vary from 1, 102 person per sq./km in Bihar to only 17 person per sq./km in Arunachal Pradesh.

76.        Match List I with List II and select the correct answer :
List- I
List- II
(a)
Division of powers among organs of government
I
Community government
(b)
Division of powers between Centre and States
II
Coalition government
(c)
Sharing of powers among different social groups
III
Separation of powers
(d)
Sharing of powers between two or more than two parties
IV
Federal government
                           A             B             C             D
            (1)           I              II              III             IV
            (2)           III             IV            I              II
            (3)           II              III             IV            I
            (4)           IV            III             II              I
Ans.     (2)
Sol.      Divisions of powers among organs called separation of powers, divisions of powers among government called federalism.
77.        The organ of government which makes laws is
            (1) Legislature                 (2) Executive                    (3) Judiciary                      (4) Press.
Ans.     (1)
Sol.      The organ of government which makes law is called legislature.

78.        The institution in which rd reservation for woman has been constitutionally given, is
            (1) Lok Sabha                                                          (2) State Legislature
            (3) Panchayati Raj institution                                    (4) Judiciary
Ans.     (3)
Sol.      Panchayati Raj or Local self government gives 1/3rd reservation to women.

79.        Which right of the Constitution of India negates the bonded labour and child labour?
            (1) Right to equality                                                (2) Right to liberty
            (3) Right to religious freedom                                   (4) Right against exploitation.
Ans.     (4)
Sol.      Right against exploitation of the Constitution of India negates the bonded labour and child labour.

80.        How many seats are reserved for Scheduled castes in the Lok Sabha?
            (1) 84                              (2) 47                               (3) 32                               (4) 22
Ans.     (1)
Sol.      84 seats are reserved for Scheduled Castes in Lok Sabha.

81.        ‘Maharashtrawadi Gomantak party’ is related to which state?
            (1) Maharashtra               (2) Goa                            (3) Kerala                          (4) Andhra Pradesh.
Ans.     (2)
Sol.      Maharashtrawadi Gomantak Party is related to Goa.

82.        Who was the editor of ‘Young India’ magazine?
            (1) Jawaharlal Nehru                                                 (2) Gopal Krishna Gokhale
            (3) Mahatma Gandhi                                                (4) Bal Gangadhar Tilak.
Ans.     (3)
Sol.      Mahatma Gandhi was the editor of ‘Young India’ magazine.

83.        Which country holds ‘Veto Power’ in United Nations?
            (1) Germany                    (2) Japan                         (3) Italy                             (4) France.
Ans.     (4)
Sol.      There are 5 countries which holds ‘Veto Power’ in United Nations. These are U.S. Russia, U.K., France and China.

84.        Which state was created on the basis of culture, geography and ethnicity?
            (1) Uttarakhand                (2) Punjab                        (3) Gujarat                        (4) Maharashtra
Ans.     (1)
Sol.      Nagaland, Uttarakhand and Jharkhand was created on the basis of culture, geography and ethnicity.

85.        Match List–I with List-II and select the correct answer :
                        List – I                                                        List – II
            (1) Organization of employees                                 (I) Naramda Bachao Andolan
            (2) Long term movement                                          (II) Asom Gana Parishad
            (3) Support to common or general interest                (III) FEDECOR
            (4) Political party                                                     (IV) BAMCEF

                           A                   B                C                D
            (1)           III                   IV               II                 I
            (2)           I                    II                 IV               III
            (3)           IV                  I                 III                II
            (4)           II                    III                I                 IV.
Ans.     (3)
Sol.      Organisation of employees was FEDECOR. Long term movement was Narmada Bachao Andolan & Political party is Asom Gana Parishad.

86.        Which work of the following is an economic activity?
            (1) Teacher teaches his son
            (2) Service rendered by a wife to her sick husband.
            (C) Service to a patient rendered by a nurse
            (4) Growing vegetables in kitchen garden.
Ans.     (3)
Sol.      The activities which add value to the national income is called economic activities.

87.        People deposit money in the bank because
            (A) Get interest                                                       (B) Money remains secured
            (C) Money is used in country’s development             (D) Value of money increases.
            (1) A and  B                                                            (2) B and C
            (3) A, B and C                                                         (D) A, B, C and D.
Ans.     (3)
Sol.      People deposit money in the bank because money remains secured and get interest.Money is used in country”s development.

88.        Which of the following statements are true for National Rural Employment Guarantee Act?
            (A) Right to work with guarantee of job
            (B) 100 days employment in a year
            (C) Implemented in all the regions of the country
            (D) Provision of unemployment allowances.
            (1) A, B and C                 (2) B, C and D                  (3) A, B and D                  (D) A, B, C and D.
Ans.     (3)
Sol.      National Rural Employment Guarantee Act 2005 was passed in September 2005. This Act provides 100 days employment.

89.        Since five years Lalita’s father is working in Government school as teacher. To purchase goods from a government ration shop which of the following cards should he possess?
            (A) BPL card                   (B) APL card                    (C) Andhar card                (D) Antyodaya card
Ans.     (2)
Sol.      There are three kinds of ration cards : - Antyodaya cards, BPL cards and APL cards.

90.        Which of the following statement are true for mid-day meal scheme?
            (A) Increase in attendance of children in school
            (B) Improvement in nutrition status of the children
            (C) Improvement in examination results of the children
            (D) Increase the interest towards games in the children.
            (1) A and B                     (B) B and C                      (C) A and D                      (D) C and D
Ans.     (1)
Sol.      Mid day meal scheme has been implemented to encourage attendance and retention of children and improve their nutritional status.


* * * * *